Is high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency a correlate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?Madeeha Kamal, Abdulbari Bener, Mohammad S Ehlayel
The aim of the study was to determine the association between vitamin D and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and difference in the level of vitamin D in ADHD children and control. This a case– control study carried out in school health and primary health care clinics. A total of 1,331 children and adoles- cents who were diagnosed with ADHD based on clinical criteria and standardized questionnaires were enrolled in this study and were matched with 1,331 controls, aged 5–18 years old. Data on body mass index (BMI), clinical biochemistry variables including serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were collected. The study found significant association between ADHD and vitamin D deficiency after adjusting for BMI and sex (adj. OR 1.54; 95 % CI 1.32–1.81; P \ 0.001). Majority of the ADHD children were in the age group 5–10 years (40.7 %), followed by 11–13 years (38.4 %). The proportion of BMI \85th percentile was significantly over represented in ADHD group as compared to healthy control (87.8 vs. 83 %; P \ 0.001, respectively), while on the other hand, BMI [95th percentile was over represented in the control than ADHD group (7.6 vs. 4.6 %; P \ 0.001, respectively). Mean values of vitamin D (ng/mL) were significantly lower in ADHD children (16.6 ± 7.8) than in healthy children (23.5 ± 9.0) (P \ 0.001). There was significant correlation between vitamin D deficiency and age (r = -0.191, P = 0.001); calcium (r = 0.272, P = 0.001); phosphorous (r = 0.284, P = 0.001); magnesium (r = 0.292, P = 0.001); and BMI (r = 0.498, P = 0.001) in ADHD children. The vitamin D deficiency was higher in ADHD children compared to healthy children.Download: Is high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency a correlate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?